Glaucoma is usually caused by elevated intraocular pressure leading to optic nerve damage. The optic nerve transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
Glaucoma is a very common disease as it affects 1 million people in France . It causes a slowly progressive visual field deterioration, or even loss of vision.
Chronic ocular hypertension (elevated intraocular pressure) is asymptomatic and can lead to glaucoma which can develop during many years without anyone symptoms, without pain nor decreased visual acuity. That is why it is essential to be tested by your ophthalmologist who will measure the intraocular pressure and examine the optic nerve (optic disc) with a fundus exam. There are different types of glaucoma: open-angle glaucoma (the most common in the Western countries ) and narrow-angle glaucoma.
Ocular hypertension is the major target of current treatments designed to slow the progression of the disease: drops, laser or surgery. Surgery (performed under local anesthesia) is available only when the drops are insufficiently effective or poorly tolerated by the patient.